Livelihood gains and ecological costs of non-timber forest product dependence: assessing the roles of dependence, ecological knowledge and market structure in three contrasting human and ecological settings in south India

Uma Shaanker, R and Ganeshaiah, KN and Krishnan, Smitha and Ramya, R and Meera, C and Aravind, NA and Kumar, Arvind and Rao, Dinesh and Vanaraj, G and Ramachandra, J and Gauthier, Remi and Ghazoul, Jaboury and Poole, Nigel and Chinnappa Reddy, BV (2004) Livelihood gains and ecological costs of non-timber forest product dependence: assessing the roles of dependence, ecological knowledge and market structure in three contrasting human and ecological settings in south India. Environmental Conservation , 31 (3). pp. 242-253. ISSN 0376-8929

[img] Text
ECL_aravind_vol.31_no.3_2004.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (318kB)

Abstract

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) constitute the single largest determinant of livelihoods for scores of forest fringe communities and poor people in the tropics. In India over 50 million people are believed to be directly dependent upon NTFPs for their subsistence. However, such human dependence on NTFPs for livelihood gains (win) has most frequently been at a certain ecological cost (lose). If livelihoods are to be maintained, the existing ‘win-lose’ settings have to be steered to a ‘win-win’ mode, otherwise, there could be severe erosion of the biological resources and loss of livelihoods (‘lose-lose’). Examining the dependence of forest fringe communities on NTFPs at three sites in south India with contrasting human and ecological settings, three key factors (extent of dependence on NTFPs, indigenous ecological knowledge and market organization) are likely to constrain reaching the win-win situation. How these factors shape the ecological cost of harvesting NTFPs at the three sites is examined. Within the parameter space of these factors, it is possible to predict outcomes and associations that will conform to win-win or win lose situations. Empirical data derived from the three study sites demonstrate the causality of the observed associations.The key for long-term livelihood gains lies in reducing the ecological cost. Certain interventions and recommendations that could optimize the balance between livelihood gains and ecological cost are proposed.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article copyright belongs to Foundation for Environmental Conservation
Uncontrolled Keywords: ecological costs, ecological knowledge, livelihood gains, non-timber forest product, NTFP, Western Ghats, win-win situation
Subjects: C Publications by ATREEians > G Journal Papers
Divisions: Publications by ATREEians > Journal Papers
Depositing User: Users 103 not found.
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2016 06:58
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2016 06:58
URI: http://eprints.atree.org/id/eprint/168

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item